tim -Muzej tekstilne industrije Augsburg

Urška Purg

Evropska mesta se že nekaj časa soočajo s propadanjem industrije, kar povzroča spremembe v družbi in življenju ljudi, zaradi česar to postaja vse bolj in bolj pomembna tema tudi za muzeje. Veliko muzejev zato poskuša rešiti in ohraniti nekatere ostanke neobstoječe ali prenesene industrije. Čeprav je ohranjanje in zagotavljanje referenčne točke v nenehno spreminjajočih se časih pomembna vloga muzejev, ki želijo nadomestiti izgube industrije in modernizacije (Marquard 2001 Zübe 1989 PO Kaiser idr. 2014, 6), to ni več njihova zadostna funkcija. Muzeji niso le skrbniki dediščine, temveč postajajo tudi nosilci sprememb, kakor jih umeščajo Kaiser, Krankenhagen in Poehls (2014, 6). To pomeni, da morajo muzeji usmeriti svoje delovanje tudi v obstoječo sodobno družbo in njene potrebe, ter vzdrževati to držo tudi v prihodnosti. Obstaja vedno več muzejev, ki po svojih najboljših močeh delajo v smeri, da pustijo svoje odtise v tem procesu. Muzej tekstilne industrije – TIM je samo en primer, kako so pristopili k izginjanju nekoč vodilne tekstilne industrije v Augsburgu.

Nahajajoč se v starem kompleksu nekdanje tekstilne tovarne, državni Muzej tekstila in industrije Augsburg pripoveduje zgodbo o industrijskem pomen Augsburga na področju tekstila v zgodovini. Gre za specializirani muzej, ki se s svojim delom in obstojem klanja nekoč pomembnemu in danes neobstoječemu delu lokalne tekstilne industrije.

Muzej sem obiskala že pred tremi leti, ko me je s pomočjo resnično dobrega vodenega ogleda povsem očaral. Zato sem bila še posebej vesela vrnitve po treh letih, da vidim, kako nadaljujejo s svojim poslanstvom. Muzej se nahaja v nekdanjem tekstilnem kompleksu, v eni izmed industrijskih stavb, v katero so zaradi potreb muzeja posegli s prefinjenim in jasnim oblikovanjem, ki si nekdanjega izgleda industrijske arhitekture ni brezglavo podredilo. Koncept muzeja sledi kronološkemu vrstnemu redu, s predstavitvijo tekstilne proizvodnje od samega začetka preko surovin in njihovega izvora. Temu sledi strojna proizvodnja, tekstilni vzorci in pregled končnih izdelkov skozi čas. Glavna zgodba, ki jo muzej pripoveduje, je opremljena z vzporedno zgodbo v ločenih tematskih kotičkih, ki predstavljajo razvoj tekstilne industrije v Augsburgu. Obe zgodbi sta zelo intuitivno in jasno speljani. Prednost tega, da je muzej zelo strukturiran, je v jasnosti za obiskovalce, ki brez težav sledijo predlaganim zgodbam, z zanimivimi modrimi interaktivnimi DIY otoki, kjer so misije, naloge in igre za otroke (in igrive odrasle). Čeprav zelo cenim, da ni preveč besedil in teksta, več vsebine v angleščini ne bi škodovalo. Sicer nudijo vodene oglede v petih jezikih, vendar ostaja rahla vrzel in pomanjkljivost na tem področju predvsem za posamezne ne-nemško govoreče obiskovalce, ki imajo željo po samostojnem ogledu in odkrivanju razstave. Tudi vztrajanje osebja pri nemškem jeziku ne glede na nagovore v angleščini ne pomaga veliko. Dodana vrednost muzeja je v predstavitev delovanja strojev, ki jo opravljajo nekdanji zaposleni v tovarni. Demonstracija strojev je impresivna in neverjetno pomaga pri ilustraciji nekdanjega poteka dela, vendar je na voljo samo trikrat na dan – zato se je pred obiskom vredno pozanimati za ure demonstracij, da jih ne zamudite.

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Glavni vhod v tim.

Dajmo se vrniti nazaj k prostoru samemu – diha in ni prenatrpan s predmeti. Uspeli so ohraniti občutek bivše tovarne in ga obenem preoblikovati v polno funkcionalen muzej. Vnesli so tudi veliko izjemnih oblikovalskih rešitev, ki omogočajo prikaz bolj občutljivih predmetov. Delikatnejše predmete so tako pospravili na varno v predalnike, opremljene z zaznavno razsvetljavo, ki se vklopi, ko obiskovalci predale odprejo, ali se približajo vitrini s pomembnim, a krhkim predmetom. Kljub zelo domiselnemu oblikovanju, na žalost vsi senzorji ob mojem drugem obisku niso več delovali.

Med svojim prvim obiskom sem najbolj občudovala, posebne tekstilne vzorce, po čemer je Augsburg slovel, ki so jih s pomočjo tehnologije dali na voljo ljudem. Tim hrani okoli 550 knjig vzorcev od leta 1793 do leta 1993, ki vključujejo približno 1,3 milijona tekstilnih vzorcev. Ker so te knjige že pošteno priletne in obenem občutljivi muzejski predmeti, so razstavljene pod zelo strogimi pogoji, ki niso najbolj prijazni za obiskovalce. Hkrati je onemogočen pregled vzorcev z listanjem knjig, kar je zaradi krhkosti povsem razumljivo. Zato so prišli na idejo o postavitvi muzejske modne piste s tremi velikanskimi osrednjimi ženskimi oblekami, ki so opremljene z računalniško povezavo do skeniranih vzorcev iz knjig in možnostjo projekcije izbranih vzorcev na eno od dveh popolnoma belih oblek. Genialno! To je omogočilo nam otrokom, da smo se igrali, bolj resnim študentom oblikovanja pa, da preizkusijo svoje kombinacije in zamisli. Vendar pa ob mojem drugem obisku to ni več delovalo. Prva velikanska obleka je ostala kot je bila, izdelana iz različnih kosov blaga, medtem ko sta bili beli dve zdaj tako rekoč – neuporabni. Ena je bila pač tam (brez omogočene individualne projekcije vzorcev), na drugi pa se je predvajal zelo kratek video posnetek o nečem nerazločnem, saj je bil preveč svetel, da bi lahko razvozlala njegov pomen. Brez računalniških postaj z vzorci ti trije velikani izgubijo svoj pomen in delujejo zgolj kot osrednje polnilo prostora s knjigami vzorcev v temnih vitrinah ob straneh, ki so pa preveč osvetljene od zunaj, zaradi česar je vzorce nemogoče občudovati.

Sicer pa je predstavljena tekstilna zgodba zelo dobro vključena v pomembne zgodovinske dogodke, s poudarkom na njihovih vplivih na industrijo. Zaokroži dramatičen vzpon in padec tekstilne industrije v času 20. stoletja, vključno s prvo in drugo svetovno vojno. V ta namen so dopolnjujoče video vsebine skrbno umestili v razstavo na zelo subtilen način, da se zlijejo z sivimi informacijskimi otočki in vitrinami, ter izboljšajo tok zgodbe in še povečajo informacijsko vrednost.

Za tiste, ki ne maramo preveč branja, je najbolj zanimiv zadnji razstavni segment, kjer predstavljajo izbrane kose modnih oblačil, vključno z nenavadno črno poročno obleko iz leta 1909. Večina predstavljenih oblek in kopalk so ženska oblačila, čeprav nekatere pomembne uniforme in obleke za gospode niso manjkale. Poleg tega moram reči, da ne bi imela prav nič proti, če bi kakšna razstavljena obleka ali dve končali v moji omari. Če bi se mi uspelo stisniti vanje, je drugo vprašanje, so pa nekateri kosi resnično lepi in brezčasni.

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Del stalne razstave, ki mi je zelo všeč – predstavitev modnih kosov, vključno s kolekcijo kopalk.

Stalna razstava se zaključi s hitrim skokom v sedanjost z verjetno najbolj priljubljenim prostorom za otroke. Poseben siv razstavni kotiček vključuje astronavtom sorodno oblačilo za železarje, zaščitna oblačila za gasilce, preizkus oblačil, ki naj bi bila odporna na veter, izdelke iz ogljikovih vlaken in drugih, zame manj privlačnih stvari.

Na splošno muzej ponuja zaokroženo zgodbo in osvetljuje pomemben del industrijske zgodovine. Nekatera pomembna sodobna vprašanja v zvezi s to industrijo ostajajo sicer neizpostavljena, so pa uporabna podlaga za začasne razstave, kjer so ob mojem obisku predstavljali posebnost in uporabnost karbonskih vlaken. Muzej je svež in narejen z mislijo na tiste, ki radi odkrivajo in so aktivni. Resnično razočaranje zame je bila zgolj popolna prepoved fotografiranja – v današnjem času?! Povsem bi razumela omejitev fotografiranja na prepoved uporabe bliskavice, ampak popolno prepoved? Njihova spletna stran pravi, da je prepoved zaradi varstva avtorskih pravic – katerih avtorskih pravic? Ali bolje, čigavih? Gre za državni muzej, posvečen ljudem. Zatorej prepoved fotografiranja obiskovalcem dandanes razumem kot manifestacijo nerazumevanja, kako se vrti svet družbenih omrežij. Zaradi te zahteve uporabljam fotografije izpred treh let, ko mi fotografiranja nihče ni prepovedal.

Ravno pred kratkim je bil objavljen pronicljiv članek na temo, zakaj nekateri muzeji prepovedujejo fotografiranje.

Da zaključim s Timom: muzej je v svojem pripovedovanju zelo sodoben, v primerjavi z drugimi muzeji, ki jih ponuja Augsburg, in je nedvomno vreden ogleda. Imajo tudi krasno muzejsko trgovino na vhodu / izhodu s šivalnim kotičkom in prikazom šivanja v živo, na prodaj je veliko muzejskih izdelkov in poštena zaloga tematskih knjig za odrasle in otroke. Poleg tega se njihova šik kavarna – restavracija popolnoma prilega ambientu in zaokroži muzejsko izkušnjo z okusnim krepčilom. Ne smemo pozabiti, kako imenitno je, da so uspeli po muzeju poimenovati tramvaj postajališče in avtobusno linijo. Še zmeraj pa je veliko prostora za izboljšave, da se razvijejo v bolj turistično prijazno destinacijo. Še posebej bi priporočila izgubo preostanka hierarhično obarvanega pričakovanja od obiskovalcev, da naj bodo hvaležni za obisk muzeja, ki se v celoti ne ujema z njihovo simpatično in prijazno spletno stranjo.

Ob koncu pa še na hitro poglejmo, kaj se na temo industrije dogaja v slovenskih muzejih. V Sloveniji je kar nekaj primerov, ki se soočajo z razkrajajočimi elementi propadle ali propadajoče industrije. Tukaj bom izpostavila le nekatere, saj bi si ta tema zaslužila kar svojo objavo. Pred leti je Muzej novejše zgodovine Celje pripravil participativni projekt »Ne meč’te piskrov stran«, javno akcijo zbiranja emajliranih loncev Western-Emo, ki so jih uporabili v umetniški interpretaciji, in obenem z namenom bogatenja muzejske zbirke s temi manjkajočimi elementi. V Belokranjskem muzeju letos predstavljajo »gospodarski čudež Jugoslavije« (Brancelj Bednaršek 2016), začasno razstavo v počastitev 60-letnice delovanja tekstilnega podjetja Beti. Muzej narodne osvoboditve Maribor pa že leta aktivno zbira ostanke padlih industrij, s tem ohranja njihov duh in zgodovino ter zgodbe; v decembru pa odpirajo razstavo tekstilne industrije v Mariboru, znano kot Jugoslovanski Manchester.


Kaiser, Wolfram, Krankenhagen, Stefan in Poehls, Kerstin: Exhibiting Europe in Museums. Transnational Networks, Collections, Narratives, and Representations. New York in Oxford: Berghahn, 2014. (Volume 6, Museums and Collections).

Brancelj Bednaršek, Andreja: Predgovor/ Foreword. Beti: 60 let spominov. Beti (Metlika). Metlika: Belokranjski muzej, 2016. 10-13.

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tim – Textile and Industry Museum Augsburg

Urška Purg

European cities are facing the downfall of industry for a while now. Causing the changes in society and people’s lives, it is becoming more and more important topic also for the museums. Museums try to save and preserve some remains of the fallen or transferred industry. Although, preservation and assuring the referential point in constantly changing times is an important role for museums, who wish to compensate the loss of industry and modernisation (Marquard 2001 in Zübe 1989 po Kaiser idr. 2014, 6), that is no longer enough for them. Museums are becoming the carriers of the changes as well, as Kaiser, Krankenhagen and Poehls place museums (2014, 6). This means, museums need to face their actions also in the present society and its needs, as well as in the future. There are more and more museums, who are doing their best to leave their footprints in this process. TIM is just one example, how once leading textile industry in Augsburg has managed to cope with their vanished era.

Placed in an old complex of former textile factory, State Textile and Industry Museum Augsburg tells a story of industrial importance of Augsburg in the textile field in the history. It is a specialized history museum, which pays a tribute to the once important and todays ruined bit of local textile industry.

I had an opportunity to visit the museum already three years ago, and with a help of a really good guided tour, it charmed me completely. It was nice to come back again after three years to see, how they are proceeding. Museum is placed in an old building with a subtle and clear museum design. The concept of the museum follows the chronological order, with an introduction of the textile production from the very beginning through raw materials with silkworms and origins, and so on, followed by the machine production, textile patterns and final products through time. The main story is accompanied by the parallel story in the separate thematic cubes, introducing the development of the textile industry in Augsburg. Both stories are very intuitively and neatly arranged. Through being a very structured museum, it is very clear for the visitors to follow the proposed storylines, with interesting blue interactive DIY islands with children’s tasks and games. Although, I appreciate there is not too much text, more text in English wouldn’t hurt. They offer guided tours in five languages though. However, for individual non-German speaking visitors, who wish merely to stroll around and discover the exhibition on their own, there is a gap. In addition, the staff addressing you in German no matter your questions are in English also doesn’t help much. There is demonstration of the machines by the former factory workers, which is impressive, it adds value to the whole concept and helps clarifying the picture, however it is available three times a day – if you are not aware of this, you can easily miss it.

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tim’s main entrance.

Nevertheless, to continue with the space itself – it breathes and it is not overcrowded with objects. They have managed to keep the feeling of the former factory and transform it in to a museum at the same time. There are also a lot of remarkable design ideas, which enable the display of the more sensitive objects, placed into drawers, with sensor lighting, that turns on, when the visitor approaches the showcase. Unfortunately, all the sensors did not work anymore.

During my first visit, I admired the most the idea of making the special Augsburg textile patterns available for the public with a help of technology. Tim keeps around 550 pattern books, which span the period of 1793 to 1993, and include approximately 1.3 million textile patterns. Since the books are old and sensitive museum objects, they need to be exhibited under extremely strict conditions, which are not very friendly to the visitors. At the same time, it is impossible to enable the overview of all of the patterns through opening the books on a random page, without the possibility to browse through the books (reasonably not allowed). Therefore, they came up with an idea of a museum catwalk with three giant central female dresses, equipped with computer connection to the scanned patterns from the books and the possibility of projection of the selected patterns to one of the two completely white dresses. Genius! It offered us children to play, and more serious design students to try out their combinations and ideas. However, at my second visit this no longer existed. The first giant dress remained as it was, made out of various patches of cloth, whereas the white two are now so to say – useless. One was just there, and the other had a too bright projection of a very short video clip about something. It was excessively bright and therefore, impossible to decipher the meaning of it. Without the computer stations with patterns, these three giants lose their meaning and work only as a middle filling of the room with books of patterns on the sides, which are excessively illuminated from the bottom up, making it impossible to watch the patterns in the dark showcases anyway.

The presented textile story is very well incorporated into the important historical events, with emphasis on their influences on the industry. It rounds the dramatic rise and fall of the textile industry during the 20th century, including the First and the Second World War. For this purpose, the complementary video content is carefully incorporated in a very subtle way, blending in with the grey info islands and showcases, enriching the story flow and adding the information value.

For those of us, who do not like to read too much anyway, the final exhibition segment was the most interesting one, presenting the selected pieces of fashion clothes, including the remarkable black wedding dress from 1909. The majority of presented dresses and swimsuits is ladies-wear, although some uniforms and gentlemen’s suits were not missing. Moreover, I must say, I wouldn’t mind to have a dress or two from the exhibition in my home closet. Whether I would manage to fit in, is another question; however, some pieces are really beautiful and timeless.

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A part of the permanent exhibition I really liked – presentation of fashin pieces, including the swimwear collection.

Permanent exhibition is concluded with a quick jump into present times with probably most popular room among the children, I imagine. A special grey cube includes space-like suite for steel workers, firefighters’ protective wear, wind-stopper test, carbon fibre products and other – to me – less appealing things with interactive elements.

Overall, museum offers a rounded story and illuminates an important piece of industrial history. Some relevant contemporary issues regarding this industry remain unspoken and can still be used in the temporary exhibitions, where the wonder and usefulness of the carbon fibre was presented at my visit. The museum is fresh and made with a thought on the ones, who like to discover things. However, what truly disappointed me is the prohibition of taking photos in today’s era?! I would fully understand the limitation of photographing with prohibition of flash usage, but the full stop? Their webpage says, it’s because of protecting the copyright – what copyrights? Or better, whose? It is a state museum, devoted to the people. And anyway, prohibiting the visitors from taking any photos in nowadays times is just a manifestation of not understanding, how the social web world is turning. Because of this demand, I am using the photos from three years ago, when no one prohibited me from taking any photos.

There has been a slick article exactly on this topic: Why is taking photos banned in museums.

To wrap it up, the museum is very contemporary in its storytelling, compared to other museums Augsburg has to offer, and it is worthwhile visiting. They even have a lovely museum shop at the entrance/ exit; with live on the spot sewing corner, many tim’s products and fair supply of thematic books for adults and children. In addition, their chic café/ restaurant fits perfectly to the ambient and rounds the museum experience with a tasty refreshment. Not to forget, how great the fact is, they have managed to name the tram station after the museum and a bus line as well. However, it still holds a broad space for improvements to develop into more tourist friendly destination. Especially, loosing that leftover of hierarchical demand of visitor’s gratefulness for being able to visit the museum, which completely mismatches their friendly webpage.

Finally yet importantly, I would like to take a quick look in Slovene museums and the industry topic. In Slovenia, there have been a few examples of facing the decomposing elements of the deindustrialization; only a few will be mentioned here, since this calls for a special post on its own. Years ago, Museum of Recent History Celje prepared a participatory project “Ne meč’te piskrov stran” referring to the public call to collect the Western-Emo enamel pots and use them in art interpretations, while enriching the museum collection with these missing elements. In Bela Krajina Museum, a temporary exhibition to celebrate the 60th anniversary of Beti Textile Company – the economic miracle of Yugoslavia (Brancelj Bednaršek 2016) is on a display this year. In Maribor, The Museum of National Liberation of Maribor is actively collecting the remains of the vanishing industries, preserving their spirit and (hi)stories, recently with emphasis on the Maribor’s textile industry, known as the Yugoslav Manchester.


Kaiser, Wolfram, Krankenhagen, Stefan in Poehls, Kerstin: Exhibiting Europe in Museums. Transnational Networks, Collections, Narratives, and Representations. New York in Oxford: Berghahn, 2014. (Volume 6, Museums and Collections).

Brancelj Bednaršek, Andreja: Predgovor/ Foreword. Beti: 60 let spominov. Beti (Metlika). Metlika: Belokranjski muzej, 2016. 10-13.

Muzej Sheikha Faisala: izvrstna osebna zbirka

Tina Palaić

Muzej Sheikha Faisala je eden izmed tistih katarskih muzejev, ki je nedvomno vreden ogleda. Gre za eklektično privatno zbirko, ki vsebuje toliko raznolikih predmetov, da se zagotovo najde takšen, ki očara še tako zahtevnega obiskovalca. Ogromne dvorane, iz katerih lahko smukneš v dodatne ločene sobe in odkriješ popolnoma nov svet, ponujajo neskončen vir za ustvarjalnost posameznikove domišljije. Na žalost nismo imeli možnosti videti vseh muzejskih sob, saj so bile nekatere v času našega obiska nedostopne. Po skoraj dveh urah, ko smo trije ‘raziskovalci’ zaključili z ogledom, nisem bila povsem prepričana, kako bom opisala svojo izkušnjo. Potrebovala sem nekaj časa, da sem sestavila vse koščke – in se na koncu odločila, da me ne bo preveč skrbelo, če bo tokratni zapis bolj eklektičen kot ponavadi 🙂

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Izjemna stavba muzeja, namensko zgrajena za prikazovanje zbirke Sheikha Faisala.

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Pred muzejem je majhna laguna, kjer je mogoče videti tradicionalno arabsko plovilo.

Muzej Sheikha Faisala prikazuje privatno zbirko Sheikha Faisala bin Qassim Al Thani-ja, bližnjega sorodnika katarskega Emirja (zbiratelj je del širše vladarske družine). Ko sem bila obkrožena z več kot 15.000 predmeti, med drugim z njegovimi oldtimerji, ladjami, arheološkimi predmeti, s tradicionalnimi oblekami, z orožjem ter s številnimi vrhunskimi primeri likovne in dekorativne umetnosti, sem se pričela spraševati, kdo pravzaprav je ta zbiratelj, kakšni so njegovi interesi in motivi. Za razumevanje zbirke, še posebej privatne, je zagotovo treba dobro poznati človeka, ki stoji za njo. Muzej Sheikha Faisala namreč ne prikazuje le islamske dediščine, temveč odraža tudi življenje samega zbiratelja. Še več, za nekatere predmete je verjetno le on tisti, ki pozna njihovo zgodbo, pomen in vrednost.

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Sheikh Faisal se je rodil v Dohi leta 1948. Danes je eden najbolj uglednih poslovnežev na Bližnjem vzhodu (Al-Faisal Holding). Z zbirateljstvom je pričel v 60. letih prejšnjega stoletja in svojo zbirko še vedno nadgrajuje. Zbirateljsko aktiven je torej že dobrih 50 let – gre za obdobje, v katerem je Katar doživljal pomembno družbeno in ekonomsko tranzicijo. Zbirka vključuje njegove osebne predmete, prav tako pa tudi stvari, ki jih je skozi vsa ta leta zbral na svojih številnih potovanjih v različne kraje. Muzejska stavba je bila zgrajena na njegovi kmetiji, ki je locirana 22 km iz Dohe, in leta 1998 odprta za javnost. Ker je zbirka privatna, se muzej ne umešča pod pristojnost Qatar Museums Authority, osrednje organizacije za muzeje v državi (vstopnina je zato 15 QR, kar je skoraj 4 €).

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V ospredju je maketa puščavskega tabora, v ozadju pa del šejkove zbirke oldtimerjev.

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Na spletni strani muzeja je mogoče prebrati, da je zbirka Sheikha Faisala razdeljena v štiri sklope: islamska umetnost, dediščina Katarja, vozila ter kovanci in denar. V resnici mnogo predmetov ni razvrščenih v navedene kategorije. Moje mnenje je, da gre zgolj za zelo široke sklope, znotraj katerih pa lahko obiskovalec najde raznorazne predmete. Večina je brez oznak, prav tako pa ni spremljevalnih tekstov (opazila sem le dva panoja s tekstom o uporabi ladij). Prav zato sem se med sprehodom po muzeju počutila, kot da brskam po nekem tujem življenju. Številne družinske fotografije, ki so obešene na stenah po vsem muzeju, so moj občutek le še okrepile.

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Brez zgodbe, ki bi jo povedal Sheikh Faisal, je nemogoče vedeti, zakaj je razstavil eno ob drugem zbirko islamskih rožnih vencev in staro televizijo s telefonom.

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Miniaturna maketa šolskega razreda.

Muzej prikazuje osebno zbirko Sheikha Faisala, ki jo lahko razumemo tudi kot njegov komentar na izjemno hiter razvoj in družbene spremembe, s katerimi se njegova država sooča v zadnjih nekaj desetletjih. Zagotovo zbirka predstavlja njegova stališča (in do določene mere tudi vidike njegovih sorodnikov), ki odražajo predvsem njegovo ogromno bogastvo, prav tako pa tudi njegove življenjske priložnosti, izkušnje, vrednote in okus. Ker sem imela občutek, da je njegova zbirka kaotična in naključna, sem sprva želela blog poimenovati drugače – Osebni kabinet čudes Sheikha Faisala. Nato sem pomislila, da ta ideja izhaja iz mojega razumevanja dediščine in muzejskih ustanov, ki temelji na Zahodnem pojmovanju, in da bi s tem poimenovanjem bila verjetno v zmoti. Namesto tega raje razmišljam, da opisane prakse zbiranja in razstavljanja izhajajo iz lokalnega kulturnega in zgodovinskega konteksta, in da jih določa predvsem specifični položaj njegove družine.

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Ladja, ki so jo uporabljali za transport, ribolov ali nabiranje biserov, je razstavljena v naravni velikosti. Omenjene dejavnosti so bile tradicionalni viri prihodka pred odkritjem nafte.

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Navdušujoča zbirka preprog je razstavljena v prostorni dvorani.

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Sheikh Faisal hrani tudi osupljivo zbirko pohištva.

Osebna zbirka Sheikha Faisala je zagotovo vir znanja. Obiskovalci, študentje in raziskovalci – vsi lahko preživijo v muzeju ure in ure, raziskujoč eno temo za drugo. Kakorkoli, da bi zbirko zares razumeli, obiskovalcem predlagam, da se pred obiskom dogovorijo za vodstvo po muzeju.

Sheikh Faisal Museum: world-class personal collection

Tina Palaić

Sheikh Faisal Museum is definitely a must-see place in Doha. This eclectic private collection contains at least one thing to fascinate any visitor. Huge halls with additional separate rooms, where you can sneak into and have a whole new world to discover offer endless sources for your imagination. Unfortunately, we did not have the opportunity to see all the rooms – some were locked at the time of our visit. After almost two hours, when the three of us left the place, I was not sure how I was going to articulate my experience. I needed some time to put all the pieces together – and eventually I decided not to worry too much if the text is more eclectic as usual. 🙂

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Great building of the Sheikh Faisal Museum.

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In front of the museum, there is a small lagoon with a traditional dhow on it.

Sheikh Faisal Museum displays the private collection of Sheikh Faisal bin Qassim Al Thani, a close relative of the Father Emir. Being surrounded by more than 15.000 objects, including vintage cars, boats, archaeological material, costumes, weapons, fine and decorative art, I started to wonder about the collector, his interests and motives. In order to understand the collection, particularly private one, you definitely need to know and understand the person behind it. Sheikh Faisal Museum does not only display the Islamic heritage, but also reflects the life of Sheikh Faisal himself. Furthermore, for some objects, perhaps he is the only person who knows their meaning and value.

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Sheikh Faisal was born in Doha in 1948, and is one of the most prominent business leaders in the Middle East (Al-Faisal Holding). His collection has developed since 1960’s, the period of Qatar’s social and economic transition, and includes his personal belongings, as well as objects collected on his travels from different places in different times. A museum building was built on his farm, located 22 km from Doha, and opened to the public in 1998. The collection is private, therefore the Museum does not come under the authority of Qatar Museums Authority, the main museum organization in the country (entrance for the Museum is 15 QR, which is almost 4 €).

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A full-scale vessel, applied in transport, for fishing or in pearl diving. (Before oil, Qataris depended on fishing and diving for natural pearls.) Beside the captain, second in command, steering man, the divers, and their pull-men, the professional musicians were an important part of the crew as well.

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At the front, you can see a model of a desert camp, at the back, there is part of Sheikh Faisal’s collection of vintage cars.

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According to museum’s website the collection is organized into four themes: Islamic Art, Qatar Heritage, Vehicles, and Coins and Currency. However, many objects are not ordered within such categories. From my perspective, these are just broad categories, under which a visitor can actually find all sorts of objects. Almost all of them are without labels and there are no texts provided (except for 2 panels with the text about the boats). For that reason, when wandering around the place, I had strong feeling that I am digging into somebody’s personal life. Numerous family photographs displayed on the walls throughout the museum, made this feeling even stronger.

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Without Sheikh Faisal’s story, it is impossible to know why he put together a collection of Islamic prayer beads and the old television with a phone on the top of it.

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Miniature classroom model.

The museum shows us Sheikh Faisal’s personal collection, which can be understood also as his commentary on a rapid development and social change his country has been facing in last few decades. Certainly, the collection presents his viewpoint (and to certain level of his relatives), which reflects in particular his enormous wealth, as well as his life opportunities, experience, values and tastes. At first, due to the chaotic and coincidental display of Sheikh Faisal’s objects I was thinking about different blog title – Sheikh Faisal’s Personal Cabinet of Wonders. Then I realized that this notion derives from my understanding of heritage and museum institution, which is based on the Western notions, and that in this case I would probably be wrong. Instead, I consider these collecting and exhibiting practices as deriving from the local cultural and historical context, and which are defined in particular by the specific position of his family.

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There is a huge hall, exhibiting a fascinating collection of carpets.

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Astonishing furniture.

To conclude, the collection certainly is a source of knowledge! Visitors, students, researchers – all can spend hours investigating one particular theme after another. However, to grasp it fully, I recomend you to find a guide to take you around.

Museum of Islamic Art, Doha

Tina Palaić

It is truly an exceptional opportunity for me to experience Doha, the capital city of Qatar, in the time of the rapid development of all Gulf area. Constant progress includes also impressive cultural offer. Museums, which are one of the sites of ongoing process of Qatari national identity construction, are not an exception. In this blog post, I would like to write about Museum of Islamic Art, an exceptional museum in many ways. Before doing so, I will provide brief introduction to better understand the Qatari cultural sphere.

Qatar is a tiny Gulf state, which gained independence from British protection in 1971. The country is in the process of rapid growth, and changes are monthly seen in every corner of Doha. On the one hand, there are many luxury hotels, spas, world class restaurants, malls and architecturally interesting and quite unusual buildings, and on the other, there are variety of options to shop in lively souqs and markets as well as explore several excellent museums and other vibrant cultural places. Qatar is still reliant on oil wealth however, the state wants to decrease its dependence on oil exports and establish a country as a major regional and international cultural and educational center.

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West Bay, one of the most prominent districts of Doha, with its modern and unusual buildings.

In her article, UCL Qatar lecturer Karen Exell suggests that collecting and displaying (I would say in the western style) are something new in Qatar – these practices have been in operation since the middle of the 20th century. They have been defined by very particular socio-cultural context. Firstly, Qatari nationals are a minority in their own country (they represent around 12 per cent of the population; total population estimated in 2016: 2,383,705 people). The majority of the population consists of skilled and unskilled expatriate workers with residence status only. Secondly, unprecedented rapid development as well as increase in personal wealth connected with oil exploitation, change their ways of life in just a few decades. Consequently, there are many private collections which serve as a point to negotiate collectors’ own relationships with modernity. They show mostly traditional ways of life and express nostalgia about lost times as well as fear to lose traditional values. One of the extraordinary private collections can be seen in the Sheikh Faisal Museum (opened in 1998).

First museum in the western model, Qatar National Museum, was established in 1975, shortly after Qatar gained independence. This museum is now closed due to reconstruction and will reopen in 2018 (check out its outstanding architecture by French architect Jean Nouvel). Many museums and galleries were opened in the last two decades, for instance Museum of Islamic Art (2008), Mathaf: Arab Museum of Contemporary Art (2010), Msheireb Museums (2015); Al Riwaq Art Space (1998), Al Markhiya Gallery (2008). All museums and galleries offer free entry. The lead organization for museums in Qatar is Qatar Museums (2005) which is responsible for development of museums and art galleries as well as restoration of archeological sites. It also organizes and sponsors various cultural events.

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Museum of Islamic Art attracts lots of people especially during the weekends – on Fridays and Saturdays.

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Museum of Islamic Art (MIA).

The Museum of Islamic Art is located on the Corniche, very beautiful waterfront promenade, on the man-made island sixty metres from the shore. It was designed by the prominent Chinese-American architect I. M. Pei, and that cooperation immediately attracted a lot of attention and media coverage in the West. The building truly is spectacular. It is a clear example of engaging with modernity, however strong connections with the past were required. In the museum’s catalogue I have read about architect’s quest for the “essence” of Islamic architecture – he defines it through the play of light and shadows, “where sunlight brings to life powerful volumes and geometry plays a central role” (p. 26).

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Spacious atrium with big chandelier and the decorative patterns on the floor, inspired by geometric Islamic designs.

The extraordinary collections of the MIA are not large in number – or at least curators did not put the majority of the objects on the display. Exhibition rooms are spacious and comfortable, with many chairs around to take a rest if necessary. In order to make every object seen and appreciated, they used the lightning to create the atmosphere of uniqueness of each of them in the otherwise dark rooms without natural lights. Exhibition includes metalwork, ceramics, jewellery, woodwork, textiles, coins and glass. It is clear that the display was created in the manner of orthodox Western exhibition design – on the basis of consideration, that the object tells its story by itself.

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Hunting horn from Italy, probably Sicily, from 11th-12th century. On the exhibition, there are very tiny information available about the object.

Museum collection is very diverse. Objects geographically range from Spain to Central Asia and India, and in time from the 7th to the 19th century. They come from both secular and religious aspects of diverse worlds. As it is written on the exhibition, their collection “reflects the diversity of many cultures and ideas within one civilization”. This is a great perspective for me, however what I really missed, was the context, which would explain the historical and geographical backgrounds of the items. In addition I also craved for more information about the importance of exhibited objects as well as background of objects’ selection.

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Here you can see a collection of astrolabes, scientific instruments, used throughout the Islamic world mainly to determine prayer time and direction of prayer towards Mecca.

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Here are two beautiful lamps, a great example of Islamic art on glass.

This experience leads me to the question: who is the museum’s target audience? What is the connection with the local population – especially because MIA is very western styled museum? Of course MIA expresses its openness to people of all ages and ethnic backgrounds – by the way, check their online tours – but it seems for me that the main aim of the museum is not to include and communicate to local audience. In my opinion, they want to impress the West with both the amazing architecture and acceptable version of the Islamic world. Namely, without providing any context, museum exhibition excludes any connections to politics. With doing so, the museum demonstrates that “Islam has continually been a tolerant and progressive force, adopting, adapting and passing on ideas within and across its borders” (catalogue about MIA, p. 9). This quote clearly shows, that a heritage is – like always, but here perhaps more evidently – a political tool to emphasize selected interpretation.

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Next to MIA is MIA Park, where you can stay for the whole day to enjoy the greenness, and catch the pleasant cool breeze from the sea. On this photo you can see MIA Park Bazaar, the modern version of the old souq tradition (held weekly every Saturday).

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This large sculpture, designed by American artist Richard Serra, stands at the end of the MIA Park pier. Known as the ‘7’ sculpture, it celebrates the spiritual and scientific significance of the number 7 in Islamic culture. Unveiled in 2011.

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MIA at the sunset.

Muzej islamske umetnosti, Doha

Tina Palaić

Res je izjemna priložnost doživeti Doho, glavno mesto Katarja, in to prav v času hitrega razvoja celotnega Zalivskega območja. Nenehen napredek vključuje tudi impresivno kulturno ponudbo. Muzeji, ki so eni izmed tistih prostorov, kjer poteka proces konstruiranja katarske nacionalne identitete, pri tem niso izjema. V tem tekstu želim predstaviti Muzej islamske umetnosti, ki je v več pogledih izjemen muzej. Pred tem pa bom poskusila s kratkim uvodom približati kulturno sfero v Katarju.

Katar je majhna Zalivska država, ki je svojo neodvisnost od britanske nadvlade razglasila leta 1971. Država se izredno hitro razvija in spremembe v Dohi lahko mesečno opazujemo na vsakem koraku. Poleg številnih luksuznih hotelov, welness centrov, izvrstnih restavracij, nakupovalnih središč in arhitekturno zanimivih in precej nenavadnih stavb so v mestu tudi številne možnosti za nakupovanje na živahnih souqih in tržnicah, prav tako pa tudi za raziskovanje številnih muzejev in drugih kulturnih prostorov. Bogastvo Katarja še vedno temelji na nafti, vendar pa želi država zmanjšati svojo odvisnost od izvoza te dobrine in se vzpostaviti kot glavno regionalno in mednarodno kulturno in izobraževalno središče.

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Moderne in nenavadne stavbe West Bay-a, enega od najbolj izstopajočih predelov Dohe.

Karen Exell, predavateljica na UCL Qatar, v svojem članku pojasnjuje, da sta zbiranje in razstavljanje (jaz bi dodala na način, ki se je uveljavil na Zahodu) v Katarju nekaj novega – ti praksi naj bi se pojavili v sredini 20. stoletja. Opredeljuje ju specifičen socio-kulturni kontekst. Prvič, Katarci so v svoji državi manjšina (predstavljajo približno 12 odstotkov celotne populacije; v letu 2016 po ocenah v državi živi 2,383,705 ljudi). Večino predstavljajo kvalificirani in nekvalificirani priseljeni delavci, ki imajo le status rezidentov. Drugič, izjemno hiter razvoj ter porast osebnega bogastva, ki sta povezana s prodajo nafte, sta spremenila njihov način življenja v le nekaj desetletjih. Posledično je nastalo precej privatnih zbirk, ki zbirateljem služijo pri vzpostavljanju njihovega odnosa do modernosti. Te zbirke prikazujejo predvsem tradicionalne načine življenja, skozi njih pa se izražata nostalgija za izgubljenimi časi in strah pred izgubo tradicionalnih vrednot. Eno izmed izjemnih privatnih zbirk si je mogoče ogledati v Muzeju Sheikha Faisala (odprt 1998).

Prvi muzej, osnovan po zahodnem modelu, je bil Katarski nacionalni muzej, odprt leta 1975 – kmalu po razglasitvi neodvisnosti. Trenutno je zaprt zaradi obnove; ponovno naj bi ga odprli leta 2018 (preverite arhitekturno zamisel francoskega arhitekta Jeana Nouvela za ta muzej). Več muzejev in galerij je bilo odprtih v zadnjih dveh desetletjih: Muzej islamske umetnosti (2008), Mathaf: Arabski muzej sodobne umetnosti (2010), Msheireb muzeji (2015), Al Riwaq Art Space (1998), galerija Al Markhiya (2008). Vstop v vse muzeje in galerije je prost. Osrednja organizacija za muzeje v Katarju je Qatar Museums (2005), ki je odgovorna za razvoj muzejev in umetnostnih galerij ter obnovo arheoloških najdišč. Poleg tega organizira in sponzorira različne kulturne dogodke.

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Muzej islamske umetnosti privablja številne obiskovalce predvsem čez vikend – ob petkih in sobotah.

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Muzej islamske umetnosti (MIA).

Muzej islamske umetnosti je postavljen na Corniche, zelo lepo obmorsko promenado, na umetnem otoku 60 metrov od obale. Oblikoval ga je znan kitajsko-ameriški arhitekt I. M. Pei, kar je vzbudilo veliko pozornosti in medijskega poročanja na Zahodu. Stavba resnično je veličastna. Gre za dober primer povezovanja z modernostjo, čeprav so naročniki pri njenem oblikovanju zahtevali močne povezave s preteklostjo. V muzejskem katalogu je opisano arhitektovo iskanje “bistva” islamske arhitekture – sam ga definira kot igro luči in senc, “kjer sončna svetloba oživi ogromne prostore in kjer ima geometrija osrednjo vlogo” (str. 26).

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Prostoren atrij z velikim lestencem in okrasnim vzorcem na tleh, ki so ga navdihnili islamski geometrijski vzorci.

Zbirka muzeja ni obsežna – ali pa so kustosi izbrali manj predmetov za razstavo. Razstavne sobe so prostorne in prijetne; v vsaki je več stolov, kjer se je mogoče odpočiti. Da bi bil vsak predmet viden in cenjen, so s pomočjo osvetlitve – v sicer temnih sobah brez naravne luči – ustvarili vzdušje, v katerem prav vsak predmet izstopi. Na razstavi je mogoče videti predmete iz kovine, stekla in lesa, nakit, tekstil in kovance. Zelo očitno je, da je bila razstava pripravljena na podlagi tradicionalnega oblikovanja razstav na Zahodu – temelji na predpostavki, da predmet sam po sebi govori svojo zgodbo.

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Lovski rog iz Italije, verjetno iz Sicilije, med 11. in 12. stoletjem. Na razstavi je o predmetu na voljo le malo informacij.

Zbirka muzeja je zelo raznolika. Predmete so zbrali od Španije do osrednje Azije in Indije, časovno pa se umeščajo med 7. in 19. stoletje. Njihovo ozadje je tako sekularno kot religiozno. Na razstavi je mogoče prebrati, da zbirka muzeja “odraža raznolikost mnogih kultur in idej znotraj ene civilizacije”. Zame je to odlično stališče, a na razstavi sem res pogrešala kontekst, ki bi pojasnil zgodovinsko in geografsko ozadje razstavljenih predmetov. Prav tako sem si želela več informacij o vrednosti vsakega predmeta ter o njihovi selekciji.

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Na fotografiji je zbirka astrolabov, znanstvenih instrumentov, ki so v islamskem svetu med drugim služili tudi za določanje časa in smeri molitve v smeri Meke.

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Islamska umetnost vključuje tudi steklene izdelke, kot sta ti krasni svetilki.

Ob tej izkušnji razstave sem se vprašala: kdo je muzejsko ciljno občinstvo? Kakšna je njegova povezava z lokalnim prebivalstvom – predvsem zato, ker je MIA muzej, oblikovan po zahodnem modelu? Seveda muzej izraža svojo odprtost za obiskovalce vseh starosti in različnih etničnih ozadij – predlagam, da preverite njihova spletna vodstva – a imam občutek, da glavni namen muzeja ni vključevanje in komunikacija z lokalnim občinstvom. Menim, da je bil njihov poglavitni cilj impresionirati Zahod – tako s samo arhitekturo kot sprejemljivo verzijo islamskega sveta. S tem, da na razstavi niso zagotovili nobenega konteksta, so iz muzejske interpretacije izključili kakršnekoli povezave s politiko. Na ta način muzej kaže, da je bil “islam nenehno tolerantna in napredna sila, ki je uresničevala, prilagajala in prenašala ideje znotraj in čez njegove meje” (muzejski katalog, str. 9). Ta navedba kaže, da je dediščina – kot zmeraj, a morda tukaj le nekoliko bolj očitno – politično orodje za poudarjanje izbranih interpretacij.

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Poleg MIA je MIA park, kjer je mogoče ves dan uživati v zelenju in prijetnih osvežilnih vetrcih, ki pihajo z morja. Na tej fotografiji je bazar v parku MIA, moderna verzija starejših souq tradicij (poteka vsako soboto).

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Velika skulptura, ki jo je oblikoval ameriški umetnik Richard Serra, je postavljena na koncu pristaniškega nasipa v MIA parku. Znana je po imenu skulptura ‘7’. Obeležuje duhovni in znanstveni pomen števila 7 v islamski kulturi. Postavljena je bila leta 2011.

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MIA ob sončnem zahodu.